After 50+ Years, Streetcars Could Come Back to Woodward
Back on Track?: The last streetcars in Detroit screeched to a halt in 1956, but some planners and developers say it’s time for them to return
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LEFT: A 1931 parade on Woodward shows a horse-drawn carriage riding over streetcar tracks. RIGHT: Streetcar barns off Woodward in Highland Park, 1938. (Photographs courtesy of the Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University.)
On April 8, 1956, Detroit held a parade — a funeral procession more like it — to mark the death of the city’s streetcars. Late that afternoon, the last streetcar in the procession, car No. 237 — a banner reading “The Journey’s End” hanging from its rear — pulled into the Woodward Carhouse, bringing an end to 93 years of street-rail service in the city.
As a young man, Elmore Leonard says he rode Detroit’s streetcars every day. The prolific novelist and screenwriter moved to the city in the late 1930s, when the price of a ride was 7 cents. “Before [World War II], my friends and I would hop on a streetcar and go downtown,” Leonard, 86, recalls. “We would go to the Vernor’s plant for free samples of ginger ale. Then we’d go down to the waterfront and hop a ferry to cross the river to Canada, which cost a nickel. You could really have a lot of fun on 12 cents.”
Best of all, you didn’t need a car to get around — “unless you had a date,” Leonard says, admitting that he took one of his first on a streetcar.
Although the prospect of getting to downtown and Canada on 12 cents belongs to a bygone era, streetcars are enjoying a national renaissance, thanks to their role in spurring economic development in Portland, Ore., and Seattle. Now, several American cities are hopping aboard the streetcar bandwagon. That includes Detroit and its M1-Rail project. “We’re going back to the future,” M1 CEO Matt Cullen says about possible streetcars along Woodward between Midtown and downtown.
When M1 started three or four years ago, we were proposing to do a streetcar system for 3.4 miles in the heart of downtown, surrounded by bus rapid transit; that was our original plan,” says Cullen, who is also CEO of Rock Ventures, an umbrella entity that helps manage Dan Gilbert’s portfolio of companies and investments, which now includes nine downtown buildings.
Originally announced in 2008 as a $103-million curbside light-rail loop along Woodward, the private nature of M1 allowed it to be fast-tracked for completion by late 2010 with little red tape. But before much progress could be made, M1 became entwined with two related public rail projects from the Detroit Department of Transportation (DDOT) and the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The consortium of private investors behind M1, headed by Gilbert and auto-racing executive Roger Penske, agreed to throw its support behind DDOT’s Woodward light-rail project, using the private money as matching funds for federal dollars.
The once relatively modest private project ballooned into one with a $600-million price tag. After years of wrangling with the very bureaucracy M1 originally set out to avoid, the light-rail option was scrapped last December in favor of a rapid bus system serving the tri-county region.
But the private M1 group refused to be derailed despite the setback. The project returned to square one, as a privately funded, 12-stop streetcar line on Woodward, from Congress to Grand Boulevard. At press time, M1 was in the midst of a 90-day review process to prove that the $130-million construction costs and $5-million yearly operating costs are valid projections that can be paid for. Cullen professed confidence in the plan’s economic viability and in Detroiters’ willingness to ride a modern streetcar, complete with onboard Wi-Fi, from downtown to the New Center by the end of 2014.
Some critics, the Cato Institute’s Randal O’Toole among them, deem streetcars too slow, clumsy, and expensive to make a real impact on a community. They also criticize streetcars for lacking the efficiency and flexibility of buses. “When operating in city streets such as Woodward, [streetcars] average less than 15 mph,” O’Toole wrote in a Detroit News op-ed piece last December. “Such slow speeds entice few people out of their cars.” O’Toole paints light rail as “an obsolete form of transportation” that “offers little congestion relief.”
Christopher B. Leinberger, a University of Michigan professor of urban planning and a visiting fellow at The Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., says O’Toole is missing an obvious point.
“In my mind, the reason you put in any transportation system is not to move people,” Leinberger says. “That’s not the goal. The goal is economic development. The means is by moving people.”